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Map of Judea as a Roman province
Judea under Roman Rule
Judea became a Roman province in the 1st century and lost its independence to the Romans in the process. In the year 6 A.D., Judea fell under direct Roman dominion as the southern part of the Iudaea province. Several Jewish revolts were seen during this time period, but were mainly unsuccessfuly. Jerusalem was sacked and destroyed, along with the Second Temple in the year 70 A.D., with much of the Jewish population being killed or taken into slavery.
In the year 135 A.D., the Roman emperor Hadrian, in an attempt to blot out anything Jewish from Judea, withdrew the region's title of "Provincia Judea" and renamed it "Provincia Syria Palaestina". This was meant as a direct insult to the Jewish people, as there was an intended connection between the terms "Palestina" and "Philistine", which were the arch-enemies of Israel a thousand years prior. This is widely believed to be the only origin of the term "Palestine".
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